So far, I’ve discussed big-picture editing, also known as content or substantive editing–for both fiction and nonfiction–and looked at how to hire an editor that does that type of work. With this post, we’re going to look at the next level down, so to speak, which is line editing.

Line editing is a lot like how it sounds–an editor will go through your manuscript line by line, searching for mistakes in grammar, word choice and usage, sentence structure (Are the adverbs and adjectives in the right place? Did the writer split his infinitives?), and punctuation (Was a semi-colon used instead of a colon?).

In addition to searching for mistakes, a good copy editor will also check for things like redundancies (“12 pm noon,” “stand up,” and so forth), making sure that sentences are as strong as possible (this usually means trading in adjectives and adverbs for strong, descriptive nouns and verbs), eliminating wordiness, and overall, making sure that the writing is as clear as possible. Line editors also search for “pet” words or phrases that are used over and over, changing or eliminating them as needed.

Another big part of a line editor’s job is to research the facts that a writer has included in her manuscript. Even if the work is fiction, the manuscript should be fact-checked for accuracy. Whether the subject matter is science, history, or geography, nothing will cause an author to lose credibility faster than having the wrong information in her writing.

Along these same lines, all quotes, references, and notes should be verified by the copy editor. If the author references in the manuscript that he retrieved his information from a particular website, that website needs to be verified with an active link so the reader can access the information.

For certain types of manuscripts, all this fact checking and reference verification can be extremely time-consuming. Works that are scientific in nature (even fiction) or fall into other niches, such as Christian works, which typically involve Scripture verification, can be especially tedious. I mention this because, if you have such a manuscript that needs to be copy edited, be ready to be charged a higher rate than if your manuscript didn’t need such verification work.

One more area that can usually be expected of a copy editor is taking a look at the overall aesthetics of the manuscript: how the headings and subheadings are treated, and making sure they are consistent in their treatment; the size and type of font used; use of bolding and italics; and so forth.

In my next post, you’ll see that many of the above areas that constitute a copy editor’s job will also be reviewed by a proofreader–but there are many differences in the two functions as well.