Today’s post is the final in my series on editing. I’ve talked about content editing, copy editing, and now we’ll look at proofreading. If you have a manuscript that you believe needs to be proofread before sending out, and you hire someone to proof it, you need to know upfront exactly what kind of service you will receive.
I learned early on when I started doing freelance editing and proofing that most people do not know the difference among the various types of editing. An author would hire me to do a proofread, so that’s what I would do, but then he would be unhappy because I didn’t catch his errors in sentence structure or paragraph organization. I quickly learned to ask a lot of questions to find out precisely what kind of editing a client wants and expects. As a writer, you need to do the same. Be very clear when you’re hiring an editor so that you both know exactly what the expectations are upfront.
If you ask for a proofread, this is what you’ll get: Your manuscript will be checked for typos, misspelled words, missing words, incorrect word usage, incorrect punctuation, inconsistencies in formatting (different-sized headings or subheads, for example), incorrect indentation of paragraphs or sections of the manuscript, correct formatting of notes and references (at the proofing stage, facts are typically not checked again, unless specifically requested), correct pagination, capitalization errors, correct use of italics and other effects.
If you need more than this checked on your manuscript, you will then need to ask for a copy edit, or perhaps even a content edit. At a typical publishing house, a manuscript normally will get proofread three times by three separate people–this is in addition to the layers of content editing and copy editing that it receives. If you are working with an independent proofreader, you should expect to have your manuscript read through twice in order to catch all the errors. It is nearly impossible to get everything on a single read.
Because of the varying degrees of work necessary for the different types of editing, the price you will be charged will also vary from proofing to copy editing to content editing, increasing in cost from proofing to content editing. I hesitate to add prices here because the market fluctuates, as in any industry, and the prices I quote will quickly be outdated.
My best advice is to contact at least three editors, ask for the same type of editing, and find out what each charges. They should all be within the same basic range. If one is extremely low or high, don’t rule that person out, but find out why. Maybe her experience level is very different from the others.
In addition to price, you’ll want to know how long the editor has worked in the editing field, what types of editing can she do, what are her strengths and weaknesses (some may only do nonfiction, for example), if she’s always worked as a freelancer or if she’s also worked in-house at a publishing company (this is simply helpful to know because an editor who has worked for a publisher may have more in-depth knowledge of the whole process, which can be helpful), how she will indicate changes on your manuscript (using Track Changes in Word, highlighting them, changing font color, etc.), and what the turnaround time will be.
I would also ask for at least one reference. Sometimes writers like to ask to see examples of previous edits the editor has done. I have to admit, I have never saved my editing work! Some editors might, but I know there are many like me who don’t, so this request may not get you too far. Instead, what is more helpful, is to ask if the editor could do a sample edit on your manuscript. I often offer this to customers, especially if they are unsure of the process and don’t really know what to expect from my editing. I will usually edit one or two pages, focusing on the type of editing they are asking for.
If you ask for this sample edit from three editors, you’ll get a very good idea of what to expect from each and which one you’ll probably want to work with. Before hiring an editor, be very clear on your deadline. If you need to get your manuscript to a publisher or agent by a certain date, be sure to add some margin into your time frame for your finished edit. It’s likely that you and your editor will go back and forth on changes, especially at the content and copy edit level, and that may take time.
I tried to cover all of the basics and then some about the editing process in these four posts, but if you have any additional specific questions, please post a comment, and I’ll do my best to answer for you.