Today I have a special guest blogger–Julie Momyer–who will be sharing her secrets for developing realistic characters, who readers will either love to love or love to hate! Julie is the author of Kiss Me Awake, a suspense novel filled with all kinds of diverse and richly developed characters. I asked Julie to please share with my readers her suggested ways for developing the characters in a fiction piece.

Hope you enjoy what she has to share…

Thou Shalt Know Thy Character

Have you ever read a novel where the characters were just names on a page? Where, other than a few descriptive words, you didn’t know anything about them, who they really were, or what made them tick?

Some refer to such characters as flat, lifeless, or one-dimensional. They have a shallow surface and a hollow core like the chocolate Easter bunnies on the store shelves. This happens because the author didn’t take the time to get to know their own characters.

Don’t let this happen to you.

When a reader picks up a book, they are embarking on a journey, and they don’t travel alone. The characters are their companions. They want to know them. Intimately.  And the only way this can be accomplished is if the author knows them intimately, first.

Physical descriptions are important to convey: eye color, build, hair length, distinguishing traits, such as a limp and how they acquired it. But if you want your characters to come across as authentic, your primary focus needs to be on their personality, their behaviors, and their life experiences.

Get inside your characters’ head, walk around in their shoes. Take them on like an actor would take on a character on the stage. It’s up to you to determine who they are, what they like, what their skills and desires are, what they are capable of, how they will react under stress, and so on.

How to Get Acquainted with Your Character

One way you can get to know your character is to create a character interview. The questions and answers are simple, similar to those asked in junior high school yearbooks and newspaper interviews:

  • Where do you live?
  • What was your worst experience?
  • What was your best experience?
  • What are your favorite foods, music, books, etc?
  • What hobbies do you have?
  • What are your vices?
  • What is your family like?
  • Who are your friends?
  • What is your biggest fear?
  • What are your goals (in this case not a life goal, but the goal in the novel)?
  • What is your education and occupation?

Then go a little deeper, and ask yourself about your character. Is your character…

An introvert or an extrovert?

Kind hearted or cold?

An optimist, pessimist, or realist?

Timid or bold?

Intelligent or ignorant?

Intriguing or boring?

Evil or good?

Charming or annoying?

Easygoing or uptight?

Are they sensitive? If so, is their sensitivity directed more toward others or themselves? Or both?

Are they hard and unemotional?

Are they passive or aggressive?

Do they have a strong sense of justice or none at all?

How do they deal with pain or trauma?

If it will contribute to the shaping of the character or further the story, you can go one step further and determine why they are the way they are. For example, if your character is unusually sensitive you can weave the cause of their hypersensitive nature into the story.

These are methods various authors have used to build their character profiles, and are not mandatory to your success. You may choose another route. Some writers flesh out their characters with detailed outlines while others can “feel” who their characters are. In the case of character development, the end justifies the means because all that matters in the end is: Do you know your character?

Thanks, Julie, for sharing about character development today. It’s true that there are many processes that will help you sketch out and develop characters for your stories. What works for one person may not work for another, so you may end up having to try several methods before hitting on one that’s just right for you. But until you know your characters intimately, don’t expect them to be anything but lifeless to your readers. The more you know them, the more your readers will as well.

To read more about Julie, you can visit her author website at (“Fiction for Real Women”). From there, you can check out her blog and read about her book, Kiss Me Awake.

Today’s post is the final in my series on editing. I’ve talked about content editing, copy editing, and now we’ll look at proofreading. If you have a manuscript that you believe needs to be proofread before sending out, and you hire someone to proof it, you need to know upfront exactly what kind of service you will receive.

I learned early on when I started doing freelance editing and proofing that most people do not know the difference among the various types of editing. An author would hire me to do a proofread, so that’s what I would do, but then he would be unhappy because I didn’t catch his errors in sentence structure or paragraph organization. I quickly learned to ask a lot of questions to find out precisely what kind of editing a client wants and expects. As a writer, you need to do the same. Be very clear when you’re hiring an editor so that you both know exactly what the expectations are upfront.

If you ask for a proofread, this is what you’ll get: Your manuscript will be checked for typos, misspelled words, missing words, incorrect word usage, incorrect punctuation, inconsistencies in formatting (different-sized headings or subheads, for example), incorrect indentation of paragraphs or sections of the manuscript, correct formatting of notes and references (at the proofing stage, facts are typically not checked again, unless specifically requested), correct pagination, capitalization errors, correct use of italics and other effects.

If you need more than this checked on your manuscript, you will then need to ask for a copy edit, or perhaps even a content edit. At a typical publishing house, a manuscript normally will get proofread three times by three separate people–this is in addition to the layers of content editing and copy editing that it receives. If you are working with an independent proofreader, you should expect to have your manuscript read through twice in order to catch all the errors. It is nearly impossible to get everything on a single read.

Because of the varying degrees of work necessary for the different types of editing, the price you will be charged will also vary from proofing to copy editing to content editing, increasing in cost from proofing to content editing. I hesitate to add prices here because the market fluctuates, as in any industry, and the prices I quote will quickly be outdated.

My best advice is to contact at least three editors, ask for the same type of editing, and find out what each charges. They should all be within the same basic range. If one is extremely low or high, don’t rule that person out, but find out why. Maybe her experience level is very different from the others.

In addition to price, you’ll want to know how long the editor has worked in the editing field, what types of editing can she do, what are her strengths and weaknesses (some may only do nonfiction, for example), if she’s always worked as a freelancer or if she’s also worked in-house at a publishing company (this is simply helpful to know because an editor who has worked for a publisher may have more in-depth knowledge of the whole process, which can be helpful), how she will indicate changes on your manuscript (using Track Changes in Word, highlighting them, changing font color, etc.), and what the turnaround time will be.

I would also ask for at least one reference. Sometimes writers like to ask to see examples of previous edits the editor has done. I have to admit, I have never saved my editing work! Some editors might, but I know there are many like me who don’t, so this request may not get you too far. Instead, what is more helpful, is to ask if the editor could do a sample edit on your manuscript. I often offer this to customers, especially if they are unsure of the process and don’t really know what to expect from my editing. I will usually edit one or two pages, focusing on the type of editing they are asking for.

If you ask for this sample edit from three editors, you’ll get a very good idea of what to expect from each and which one you’ll probably want to work with. Before hiring an editor, be very clear on your deadline. If you need to get your manuscript to a publisher or agent by a certain date, be sure to add some margin into your time frame for your finished edit. It’s likely that you and your editor will go back and forth on changes, especially at the content and copy edit level, and that may take time.

I tried to cover all of the basics and then some about the editing process in these four posts, but if you have any additional specific questions, please post a comment, and I’ll do my best to answer for you.

So far, I’ve discussed big-picture editing, also known as content or substantive editing–for both fiction and nonfiction–and looked at how to hire an editor that does that type of work. With this post, we’re going to look at the next level down, so to speak, which is line editing.

Line editing is a lot like how it sounds–an editor will go through your manuscript line by line, searching for mistakes in grammar, word choice and usage, sentence structure (Are the adverbs and adjectives in the right place? Did the writer split his infinitives?), and punctuation (Was a semi-colon used instead of a colon?).

In addition to searching for mistakes, a good copy editor will also check for things like redundancies (“12 pm noon,” “stand up,” and so forth), making sure that sentences are as strong as possible (this usually means trading in adjectives and adverbs for strong, descriptive nouns and verbs), eliminating wordiness, and overall, making sure that the writing is as clear as possible. Line editors also search for “pet” words or phrases that are used over and over, changing or eliminating them as needed.

Another big part of a line editor’s job is to research the facts that a writer has included in her manuscript. Even if the work is fiction, the manuscript should be fact-checked for accuracy. Whether the subject matter is science, history, or geography, nothing will cause an author to lose credibility faster than having the wrong information in her writing.

Along these same lines, all quotes, references, and notes should be verified by the copy editor. If the author references in the manuscript that he retrieved his information from a particular website, that website needs to be verified with an active link so the reader can access the information.

For certain types of manuscripts, all this fact checking and reference verification can be extremely time-consuming. Works that are scientific in nature (even fiction) or fall into other niches, such as Christian works, which typically involve Scripture verification, can be especially tedious. I mention this because, if you have such a manuscript that needs to be copy edited, be ready to be charged a higher rate than if your manuscript didn’t need such verification work.

One more area that can usually be expected of a copy editor is taking a look at the overall aesthetics of the manuscript: how the headings and subheadings are treated, and making sure they are consistent in their treatment; the size and type of font used; use of bolding and italics; and so forth.

In my next post, you’ll see that many of the above areas that constitute a copy editor’s job will also be reviewed by a proofreader–but there are many differences in the two functions as well.

In Part 2 of this series on editing, I want to focus on “big-picture” editing, which is called substantive or content editing. As explained briefly in my first post of the series, this type of editing will look different for fiction vs. nonfiction, but the overall purpose is the same in both: to focus on overarching problems with a manuscript and to view the manuscript as a whole. This is different than the other two types of editing–line editing and proofreading–which evaluate a manuscript in very small, often isolated, chunks.

First, let’s look at nonfiction.
The big-picture ideas for nonfiction editing (for books and articles) include the overall organization and presentation of the material as well as the flow and transition of paragraphs. No matter how a nonfiction piece is organized–Q & A or other interview style (for magazines), chronologically, in sequential steps, or as organized subtopics, clarity is paramount. An editor will be looking for ideas that need to be re-ordered within the manuscript and ways to make the thoughts flow as smoothly as possible.

Transitions between chapters and paragraphs are also important, so the work doesn’t end up looking disjointed. Within the chapters, each paragraph should have a strong topic sentence and only one theme. If there are random thoughts within your paragraphs, they should be corralled, and either moved to another paragraph or eliminated.

Editors will also look to see how your reference work, if applicable, fits into the body of your work. If you’re using illustrations, charts, statistics, etc. they need to be properly placed and aptly support your text.

Before sending your manuscript off to an editor, check to see that there are no holes in your logical presentation. Read it objectively with fresh eyes, making sure that you haven’t left any unanswered questions about your topic.

Now onto fiction. When content editing a work of fiction, some things the editor will look for are: how well the characters are developed; if the dialects of the characters are consistent throughout the book; if the story flows well from scene to scene; if the point of view remains consistent within scenes; if various techniques like flashbacks or dream sequences are used correctly and do not lead to confusion; overall pacing of the story; how well the story arc is developed; if the chapters’ beginnings and endings are written in such a way as to make you want to read more; how effectively the conflict is developed; the effectiveness of the story’s subplots, and if all the loose ends are tied up by the end of the story.

When you ask for a content edit, these are the things you should expect to be scrutinized in your manuscript. Often, when writing fiction, it’s easy to make a lot of assumptions about what the reader knows, or should know, from your writing. Things that may seem obvious to you may not be so to your reader. Having an editor review your manuscript will bring those areas to light so that your writing becomes more clear.

Before you send your manuscript off for a content edit, keep the above list in your mind as you’re reading through your story. Make sure you can check off each of those areas to the best of your ability. If there’s a certain area that you’re struggling with, like getting a flashback scene to work so that it fits into the flow of your story properly, let the editor know that ahead of time. Ask for suggestions for how you could make it better.

It’s sometimes hard for writers to stay open minded during this first editing phase, because this is where most of the slicing and dicing of a manuscript occurs. Your editor may suggest cutting entire scenes because they slow down the story too much, or you may be asked to rework a character because he’s not believable.

You obviously don’t have to do what the editor says, but at the same time, it’s helpful to not be closed minded, thinking only your way is correct. At least try the suggested edits and see if they strengthen the manuscript. This is where having an editor whom you trust (and get along with) becomes really important.

So, how do you find such a person? For a content edit, if at all possible, I highly suggest meeting with the potential editor, or at least having a phone call if an in-person meeting is not feasible. You will gain a much greater sense of confidence (or lack thereof) and rapport through an actual conversation versus email. It’s very important that you both are on the same page with your expectations and desire to make the manuscript the best it can be.

When it comes to locating a content editor, I recommend using referrals when possible. If you don’t know of anyone right off who can refer you to an editor, start asking around in your critique group and writing circles. You can also locate editors at writing conferences and workshops. You can find editors in market guides, but just make sure you screen carefully.

That’s all for now on content editing. Next post I’ll move onto what to expect when hiring a copy editor.

I recently edited a novel where the author used a lot of broken dialogue, interrupted dialogue, and phrasing that often served as side notes in her sentences. For the most part, she had treated each situation with commas or an occasional dash. Because of this, much of the writing tended to run together, without distinctiveness to the sentences. After polishing it up with proper punctuation, her words took on a whole new flair. It’s amazing what the right little marks in your sentences can do for your writing!

Today I’d like to take a look at a constant source of frustration for many writers: differentiating between the use of hyphens, dashes, and commas.

Hyphens: The most common uses for hyphens are to combine compound words (toll-free number), to divide words at the end of a line of text, and to separate numbers or letters (as in a phone number, or when spelling out a word). Hyphens are also used when the second part of  a compound term is omitted (five- or ten-year loan) and often when writing web addresses. For the most part, these are the only times hyphens should be used, if you want to be punctuationally correct (I know punctuationally isn’t really a word, but it works here!).

Typically, instead of a hyphen, what you really want is a dash. There are several forms of dashes (really!), but the two most commonly used are the en dash and em dash.

En dash: This dash is so named because it is the width of a capital N. If you’re using MS-Word, you can insert it by going to the Insert tab on your tool bar, clicking on Symbols, then Special Characters, then En Dash (the 2nd from the top of the list). Since WordPress will not allow me to properly construct an en dash, it will be signified here by two hyphens (–).

Why do you need the en dash, you ask? Several reasons…

Properly used, the en dash will connect inclusive numbers and dates (1996–1999), as well as times (12:00–2:00). It can also be used for inclusive chapters: In the book of Matthew 6–9…

It is also used for to/from destinations: the Miami–Boston flight; or for scores of games: The Cubs finally won, 10–4.

If you do use an en dash, you would not use the phrase “to…from” and vice-versa. For instance, you would say either “The meeting is from 10 to 2,” or  “The meeting is 10–2”; not: “The meeting is from 10–2.”

Em dash: This is the dash most of us think of when we refer to “the dash.” It is so named because it is the width of a capital M. It is constructed the same way in MS-Word as the en dash, except it is found at the top of the list under Special Characters. For our purposes here, I will use 3 hyphens to signify the em dash (—).

The em dash is extremely versatile, often taking the place of commas and colons. Instead of giving commas their own category on this post, I will talk about them here in relation to the em dash, since they are most often misused in this regard.

Perhaps the most common use for em dashes within sentences is when there is an abrupt break in thought:

I am going to the basketball game—even though it’s going to be a blowout—just to appease him.

Often, writers would simply surround that side-note phrase with commas; and, in some cases that can work. In this type of usage, the em dash and the commas may be interchangeable. The test is to see how strong of a statement you want to make with your phrase that is breaking through your sentence. If it’s just a minor aside, then use commas. But if it’s a phrase that you really want to stand out and show its strength in the sentence, you’ll need the em dash.

Em dashes are also correctly used for broken or omitted dialogue:

“I told her she could go with me, but —“

“But what?” Megan replied hastily.

In another case of em dash vs. comma, consider the following sentences:

A laptop, a toothbrush, a change of clothes, that is all she packed for her overnight trip.

A laptop, a toothbrush, a change of clothes—that is all she packed for her overnight trip.

How much stronger and more readable with the em dash instead of the comma! The rule here is that whenever you have an introductory phrase that somehow introduces what follows it—another way of saying this is that an explanatory phrase follows the introductory phrase–the em dash is typically used.

To summarize the use of the em dash, use it for broken phrases or dialogue and in places of commas for a stronger statement or to avoid confusion if you are using several commas to compose a list. Not only is such usage technically correct, but varied use of punctuation will make your writing more interesting and help indicate your areas of emphasis.

My challenge to you is to review your writing and see where you could possibly replace commas with em dashes. Also, look over any inclusive numbers, dates, times, and so forth and replace your hyphens with en dashes. Remember, there are only a few places where hyphens are truly appropriate, so make sure you haven’t misused them in your writing.

In this continuation of my previous post on writing for free, I’m going to look at one more instance when it’s time to say no to not getting paid for your work.

In Part 1 of this post, I mentioned two situations where you should move on from writing for free to getting paid:

1) When you’ve already done free work for a “customer” and they want you to continue working for free

2) When you already have several writing credits to your name

Please refer back to Part 1 for the details on these two scenarios.

A third and final instance I want to mention is…

When you’ve already built a platform or created a brand for yourself. Now, you’re probably thinking, How can I create a platform or brand if I don’t have much writing experience yet? But the truth is, branding has become so important for a writer, that many are doing this first before they ever begin to start trying to get published.

I have heard of many writers who did not start out as writers, but rather as experts in their field. So, they built up a blog or a website, many even held workshops on their topic, and did all they could to become the “go-to” person for their area of expertise. Then, once people knew who they were, they started writing for magazines and then eventually books.

Depending on your subject area, this is a very feasible way to go, especially in today’s viral market. And, once you have established yourself to the point where you do have some name recognition and have begun to build a decent platform of exposure (through speaking engagements and so forth), you will have some leverage when approaching publishers.

You may not have writing credits to your name, but you can approach a publisher by letting them know how many followers you have on your various social media avenues, plus how many speaking engagements you do every month or year. In essence, you’re telling that publisher, “People know my name, and if they are interested in the subject I will be writing about for your magazine, they will come to you to read it.” Having a built-in following before you ever approach a publisher gives you a good case for getting paid for your work.

A great example of this is a now-author I know who began experimenting with a food fast. She wanted to clean up her body and kick-off a major lifestyle change. She had tried many different kinds of fasts, but chose one referred to as the Daniel Fast, after the story of Daniel in the Bible, who basically only ate fruits and veggies and nuts and seeds, despite the king’s offer of giving Daniel the best meats and “delicacies” he had available.

She recorded every single thing she ate as well as how she was doing psychologically and physically during this fast. She blogged about it, tweeted about it, even set up a website for recipes. After a period of time (a few months, I believe), she had so many people following her blog, asking her about her recipes, and trying the fast for themselves, she decided to turn her experience into a book.

She got picked up by a publisher because they could see how much interest there was in her subject, and since she had been though it herself, she was an expert so to speak, in this type of fast. She was not a writer before this experiment, but she is now. We are seeing this more and more in the publishing world.

The point of all of this is to say, don’t think you have to continue to write for free. If you have the credentials, and you have the experience, and people want to hear what you have to say, you should get paid for saying it!

Recently I was asked by a writer friend, “How long do I have to keep writing for free?” I told her, “That’s up to you.” I guess that wasn’t the answer she was expecting, because she gave me quite a surprised look. Maybe you’ve got that same look on your face right now! So, let me explain…

Many people in the writing/publishing business (myself included) will tell you to accept pro bono jobs when you’re starting out and trying to get yourself on the map as a legitimate writer. I still agree this is a good idea. It’s the same principle as a new business in town giving away samples of their products or services for a limited time so their prospective market will take a chance and experience them.

There’s nothing wrong for a writer to offer to do an article for free–perhaps in exchange for a link to his website and a bio. Or, to give away some copywriting expertise to a local business in order to gain exposure and build a resume. Not only is it not wrong; it’s smart business. But at some point, you need to draw the line and start collecting money for your work. So, when do you know when to start saying no?

Here are a few scenarios when you should cross over that line:

  • When you’ve already done free work for a “customer” and they want you to continue working for free. I will usually give the same customer two freebies, depending on the nature of the job. If it’s extremely time consuming, or if it didn’t seem to produce much exposure for my work, then I will only give away one job. But, after working for someone twice for free, they need to start paying!

The exceptions to this are if you’re working for an organization you care about and just want to help them promote themselves, or if the company is offering you a consistent gig that will not consume too much of your time. I have worked for free writing a monthly article for a nonprofit but only because it didn’t take very long for me to write. I was able to build my business alongside this free job, and all the while I was accumulating writing credits.

The problem with continuing to give away your work for free to the same customer is that the longer you do it, the harder it becomes to tell that customer they need to start paying. (This is similar to the problem with ideologies like Socialism, but that’s for another blog.) But, the truth is, if they liked your work enough to ask you to do something else for them, then they should pay for it. And, deep down they know this; and more often than not, they are waiting for you to call them on it. Chances are, they won’t say anything if you don’t.

So…how do you transition a client from nonpaying to paying?

One thing I’ve done in the past is to set up an escalating fee scale with my pro-bono customer. After I did my first freebie and they decided they liked my work enough to ask me to write for them again, I proposed a payment scale that started out at 50% of what I would normally charge for that particular job. The pay increased 10% every time I did a job, until we reached my full pay rate. So it took 6 jobs for me to reach my full pay rate, but at least I was making money, and we were moving in the right direction! And, they agreed that as long as they were happy with the work, it was worth it for them.

Another way to handle moving from a nonpaying to a paying customer is to negotiate a contract (make sure it’s written and signed) stipulating that you will do 2 or 3 freebies, but then you get paid at a certain rate for 2 or 3 more jobs (or whatever terms you can agree on).

  • When you already have several writing credits to your name. This is the case with the writer friend of mine whom I mentioned in my opening paragraph. She’s been published in magazines and online a few times now (all for free), but continues to accept more nonpaying jobs.

Once you have published work, especially in print media, future publishers really should not be asking you to write for free. There will always be nonpaying markets–both in print and online–but you will know going into a job whether it pays or not. Once I had a few published pieces, I no longer submitted my work to nonpaying markets. Now again, there are reasons why you might:

–It’s a market you really want to break into, because you know it could lead to other opportunities or because it will give you a chance to do something out of your niche. When I first started writing for kids, I took a couple nonpaying jobs because it was new for me. I wanted a chance to prove myself as a children’s writer, so even though I already had writing credits, I did some children’s work for free to gain exposure in that market.

–It will give you an opportunity to promote yourself or your work by offering bios, website links, or book promotions. In the past, I have traded the chance to get paid for an article with the opportunity to promote my book and my website because that was more important to me at that time.  Many magazine markets are willing to do this if you have an article that will fit the theme of their magazine.

Once you have published credits and have experience to put on your resume, limit your search to paying markets (unless you have a good reason not to, as mentioned above), and send those publishers clips of your work and your resume when you submit your query letter or manuscript. If an opportunity comes to you where the business owner/publisher does not want to pay for your services, you should send them clips of the published work you’ve already done, along with a rate sheet for the type of services they’re asking for. That should give them the hint that you don’t work for free. If it doesn’t, then it will be up to you to tell them or…take yet another nonpaying job.

Stay tuned for Part 2 where I will continue the discussion on when you should say no to nonpaying jobs.